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Californian Gold Rush

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Während des kalifornischen Goldrauschs von 18suchten Tausende ihr Glück als Goldgräber in Kalifornien. Aus dem kalifornischen Goldrausch leitet sich auch der offizielle Beiname Kaliforniens Golden State ab. Während des kalifornischen Goldrauschs von 18suchten Tausende ihr Glück als James J. Rawls, Richard J. Orsi (Hrsg.): A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. – im Gold Country, dem Land der Goldgräber, an der richtigen Adresse! Unweit der kalifornischen Hauptstadt Sacramento liegt diese geschichtsträchtige Region​. 'Lucky' Baldwin, Tex Rickard, Dave Neagle, Rex Beach, Jack London, and '​Arizona Charlie' Meadows were in the forefront of Western mining rushes. The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (​Search and Recover, Band 2) | Brands, H. W. | ISBN: | Kostenloser.

Californian Gold Rush

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Californian Gold Rush Video

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The Gold Rush hastened statehood in as a part of the Compromise of ; and, though the Gold Rush peaked in , the momentum of settlement did not subside.

The discovery of gold in California started a new sequence of treaties designed to extinguish Indian title to lands lying in the path of the overland routes to the Pacific.

The sudden surge of thousands of wagon trains through the last of the Indian country…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!

Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

More About. Alexander Everett was a widely traveled diplomat 30 years her elder. She was fascinated by him, in an academic way. He was infatuated with her.

Everett died in Macao, China, in June , the same year he received a letter from Louise announcing her engagement to a young doctor.

The man Louise Smith married was five years her junior. Both Louise and Fayette Clapp longed to go west, so when they heard that gold had been discovered in California, the newlyweds packed their trunks and boarded the schooner Manilla.

The foggy, damp bay weather did not agree with Fayette. He suffered from bilious attacks, fever, ague and jaundice while in San Francisco.

Louise, on the other hand, liked the hilly city. On June 7, , Fayette set out with a friend to Rich Bar, hoping the pure mountain air would be good for his health.

He also hoped that good mining investment opportunities existed at the camp, and that there was a shortage of doctors. In many other places in California, doctors and lawyers were already in abundance.

Luckily for young Dr. Clapp, prospects at Rich Bar were good on all counts. Once he had successfully established himself, he returned for his wife in September.

Since Louise was provided with a cook and a laundress, she had plenty of time for writing. There were few women at Rich Bar.

Louise found only four besides herself. The mining camp had no brothel, although the Empire, a combination inn, restaurant and general store, had originally been constructed with a brothel in mind.

She lived with her husband in a three-room canvas house she kept exceptionally clean. R- enthusiastically. Why, she earnt her old man nine-hundred dollars in nine weeks, clear of all expenses, by washing!

Nancy Bailey was also tiny. She shared a dirt floor cabin with her husband and three children, but she fell sick and died weeks after Louise arrived.

The first woman to arrive at Rich Bar ran the Indiana Hotel with her father. She was called the Indiana Girl. Louise wrote about her in her second letter:.

The sweet name of girl seems sadly incongruous when applied to such a gigantic piece of humanity…. The far-off roll of her mighty voice, booming through two closed doors and a long entry, added greatly to the severe attack of nervous headache under which I was suffering when she called.

Last spring she walked to this place and packed fifty pounds of flour on her back down that awful hill — the snow being five feet deep at the time.

Yank himself was a character. His aspiration was to be a dandy grafter. There is nothing you can ask for but what he has — from crow bars down to cambric needles; from velveteen trowsers up to broadcloth coats of the jauntiest description….

In her seventh letter, Louise describes the log cabin Fayette acquired for her on the sparsely populated Indian Bar, upriver from Rich Bar but within walking distance:.

Enter my dear; you are perfectly welcome; besides, we could not keep you out if we would, as there is not even a latch on the canvas door….

The room into which we have just entered is about twenty feet square. It is lined over the top with white cotton cloth….

The sides are hung with a gaudy chintz, which I consider a perfect marvel of calico printing. The fireplace is built of stones and mud, the chimney finished off with alternate layers of rough sticks….

The mantle piece…is formed of a beam of wood, covered with strips of tin procured from cans, upon which still remain in black hieroglyphics, the names of the different eatables which they formerly contained….

I suppose that it would be no more than civil to call a hole two feet square in one side of the room, a window, although it is as yet guiltless of glass.

The path between Indian Bar, where the Clapp cabin stood, and Rich Bar, where Fayette had his office, was somewhat precarious.

Footbridges across the river were felled logs still wrapped in bark and moss. Large rocks and countless mining pits, 6 or more feet deep, with accompanying gravel heaps, had to be skirted.

One pit was only a few feet from their cabin door. Over the entrance…is painted in red capitals…the name of the great Humboldt spelt without the d.

This is the only hotel in this vicinity, and as there is a really excellent bowling alley attached to it, and the bar-room has a floor on which the miners can dance, and, above all, a cook who can play the violin, it is very popular.

But the clinking of glasses, and the swaggering air of some of the drinkers, reminds us that it is no place for a lady.

So was panning for gold. She also discovered it was hard, dirty work, and she did not repeat the experiment, not for years. But she did observe and write about the gold miners.

As there are no State laws upon the subject, each mining community is permitted to make its own. There are many ways of evading the above law.

The laborer…can jump the claim of the very man who employs him…[but] generally prefers to receive the six dollars per diem, of which he is sure…[rather than] running the risk of a claim not proving valuable….

The labor of excavation is extremely difficult, on account of the immense rocks…[in] the soil. Of course, no man can work out a claim alone.

Some companies discarded top dirt and chose instead to hunt for gold in bedrock crevices. The people populating Rich Bar and Indian Bar varied as much as their houses.

Louise describes Beckwourth in her eighth letter:. He is fifty years of age, perhaps, and speaks several languages to perfection.

As he has been a wanderer for many years and for a long time was a principal chief of the Crow Indians, his adventures are extremely interesting.

He chills the blood of the green young miners, who, unacquainted with the arts of war and subjugation, congregate around him [to hear] the cold-blooded manner in which he relates the Indian fights that he has been engaged in.

Unlike Jim Beckwourth, most men at Rich and Indian bars could not speak more than one language fluently, although some Americans seem to have tried.

Unfortunately, the humor in such misunderstandings was often overlooked. Yet things remained relatively peaceful through the winter of In February , provisions were becoming scarce.

The rancheros who had been driving beef herds into the valley and the mule drivers who brought in onions, potatoes, butter and coffee could not get through the deep snow that covered the hills surrounding the bars.

So the Clapps and their neighbors lived for three months on flour, dark ham, salted mackerel, and rusty pork. And when the snow finally melted, spring floods commenced, sweeping away flume machinery, log bridges, long toms, cradles, a newly finished sawmill and several men.

By mid-May, the waters calmed down and fresh provisions arrived. So did a large number of mostly American newcomers. Meanwhile, Mexicans at the mines expressed growing frustration over the lack of justice where they were concerned.

In her 16th letter, Louise writes sardonically:. A few evenings ago, a Spaniard was stabbed by an American. It seems that the presumptuous foreigner had the impertinence to ask very humbly and meekly of that most noble representative of the stars and stripes, if the latter would pay him a few dollars which he had owed him for some time.

His high mightiness, the Yankee, was not going to put up with any such impertinence, and the poor Spaniard received, for answer, several inches of cold steel in his breast, which inflicted a very dangerous wound.

Nothing was done and very little was said about this atrocious affair. This has caused nearly all the Spaniards [Californios] to immigrate upon Indian Bar.

On the Fourth of July, tensions between Californios and Americans exploded. While Dr. Clapp joined other sober Americans in celebrating Independence Day with speeches, poetry, music and dancing at the Empire on Rich Bar, drunken celebrants made the rounds at Indian Bar.

Louis Clapp wrote about it in her 19th letter:. California State University, Stanislaus. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved January 23, Learn California.

Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved December 3, Another route across Nicaragua was developed in ; it was not as popular as the Panama option.

Rawls, James J. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved February 26, Retrieved October 22, Other estimates range from 70, to 90, arrivals during ibid.

Archived from the original on May 13, Another estimate is 2, forty-niners of African ancestry. The American Experience.

Retrieved October 4, August 26, Retrieved March 7, The surviving U. There were fewer than 1, U. The letters were originally published in — by The Pioneer magazine.

The U. Congress finally legalized the practice in the " Chaffee laws " of and the "placer law" of Lindley, Curtis H.

See also John F. Burns, and Richard J. Douglas W. Archived from the original on May 14, The term "ounces" used in this article to refer to gold typically refers to troy ounces.

There are some historical uses where, because of the age of the use, the intention is ambiguous. See Roman-era gold mines in Spain. Roman engineers built extensive aqueducts and reservoirs above gold-bearing areas, and released the stored water in a flood so as to remove over-burden and expose gold-bearing bedrock, a process known as hushing.

The bedrock was then attacked using fire and mechanical means, and volumes of water were used again to remove debris, and to process the resulting ore.

The gold recovered using these methods was used to finance the expansion of the Roman Empire. Hushing was also used in lead and tin mining in Northern Britain and Cornwall.

There is, however, no evidence of the earlier use of hoses, nozzles and continuous jets of water in the manner developed in California during the Gold Rush.

Alpers; Michael P. Hunerlach; Jason T. May; Roger L. Geological Survey. Retrieved February 19, Evidence from the California Gold Rush".

Journal of Economic History. Lick's fortune was used to build Lick Observatory. Huntington , Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker , Sacramento area businessmen later known as the Big Four who financed the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad , and became very wealthy as a result.

Other estimates are that there were 7,—13, non-Native Americans in California before January See Holliday, J. See Starr, Kevin , p.

The Journal of Economic History. By , California had over flour mills, and was exporting wheat and flour around the world.

Harper's New Monthly Magazine. March From California we have intelligence to January The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama is completed, and trains passed..

Central America. Retrieved April 25, All hands and passengers were saved, along with the cargo of gold, but the ship was a total loss.

Archived from the original on March 12, Indian Country Today Media Network. January 24, Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved April 7, California Secretary of State.

Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved March 23, Cabrillo College. Archived from the original on November 1, Joaquin Murrieta was a famous Mexican bandit during the Gold Rush of the s.

Historia De Chile. Editorial Universitaria , Chile. New York Fed. Liberty Street Economics. Retrieved August 8, The gold rush constituted a positive monetary supply shock because the United States was on the gold standard at the time.

The nation had switched from a bimetallic gold and silver standard to a de facto gold standard in Under the latter, the U.

That commitment anchored prices, but the large gold discovery functioned like a monetary easing by a central bank, with more gold chasing the same amount of goods and services.

The increase in spending ultimately led to higher prices because nothing real had changed except the availability of a shiny yellow metal.

See Burchell, Robert A. California Historical Quarterly. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved October 10, Federal Highway Administration.

Retrieved September 7, In the s, green and white CA signs that resemble miners' spades replaced the black and white U. Palo Alto Weekly.

Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved December 30, While critics have long recognized Harte's interest in gender constructs, Harte's depictions of Western partnerships also explore changing dynamics of economic relationships and gendered relationships through terms of contract, mutual support, and the bonds of labor.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe History of California: — San Francisco: The History Company. Blakely, Jim; Barnette, Karen July Boyd, Nan Alamilla University of California Press.

Brands, H. New York: Anchor Books. Caughey, John Walton The California Gold Rush. Clappe, Louise Amelia Knapp Smith The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, — San Francisco: T.

Clay, Karen; Gavin Wright April Explorations in Economic History. Cossley-Batt, Jill L. The Last of the California Rangers. Dillon, Richard New York: McGraw Hill.

Faragher, John Mack Gaither, Chris; Chmielewski, Dawn C. October 10, Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Heizer, Robert F.

The Destruction of California Indians. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. Hill, Mary Gold: The California Story.

Holliday, J. Johnson, Susan Lee New York: W. Levy, JoAnn Hamden, CT: Archon Books. Lindsay, Brenden C.

Madley, Benjamin Yale University Press. Miller, Joaquin Life Amongst the Modocs. Neary, J. Mapping Regions in Early American Writing.

University of Georgia Press. Norton, Jack San Francisco: Indian Historian Press. Paul, Rodman W. Bison: University of Nebraska Press.

Rohrbough, Malcolm J. Moynihan, Ruth B. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Rawls, James, J. California: An Interpretive History.

Californian Gold Rush

The women left behind took on responsibilities they had never anticipated, such as caring for families alone, running businesses, and managing farms.

A Rush of Gold Seekers By , the non-native population of California had grown to almost , people. Nearly two-thirds were Americans.

Upon arrival in California, immigrants learned mining was the hardest kind of labor. They moved rock, dug dirt and waded into freezing streams.

They lost fingernails, got sick and suffered malnutrition. Many died of disease or by accident. Sucker Flat Despite the relentless work, the promise of gold drew more miners west every year.

Within a few years, the little port of San Francisco became a raucous frontier metropolis with a lively economy and California was named the 31st state.

The fortunate bettered their circumstance, but mining required, above all, luck. And not everyone got lucky. White Men's Gold Part of the difficulty for the individual miner was competition.

As the mining region grew more crowded, there was less gold to go around. Anglo-American miners became increasingly territorial over land they viewed as meant for them and forced other nationalities from the mines with violent tactics.

As for California's native people, one hundred and twenty thousand Native Americans died of disease, starvation and homicide during the gold rush.

Fading Dreams As the surface gold disappeared, individual miners found their dreams of cashing in on the gold rush growing more elusive.

Many men went to work for the larger mining companies that invested in technology and equipment to reach the gold that lay below the surface.

By the mids mining for gold had become less an individual enterprise and more a wage labor job. Invasive Technique The large mining companies were highly successful at extracting gold.

In the process, they devastated the landscape and choked the rivers with sediment. The sediment washed downstream and flooded farmlands, ruining crops.

A court ruling brought an end to hydraulic mining in , and agriculture took over as the principal force behind the California economy.

By , the idea that the extermination of the native population of California was inevitable had been firmly settled in the minds of many white Californians.

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Californian Gold Rush Video

The California Gold Rush cartoon 1849 (The Wild West)

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